The Science Behind BAIOTEQ
Research

The Science Behind BAIOTEQ

Learn how BAIOTEQ creates spaces that protect occupant health, promote anti-aging and boost revenue.

BAIOTEQ R&D

September 9, 2021

September 9, 2021

Introduction

BAIOTEQ has combined the last 50 years of research to create an 8 stage biosecurity framework for advancing health in spaces of all kinds. The “8 stage biosecurity framework” was created by a multidisciplinary team of experts from BAIOTEQ Inc with the support of Dalhousie Medicine, University of New Brunswick & the National Research Council of Canada. We hope that you find this information helpful. Our goal is to improve the lives of all people, in all buildings, everywhere, every day.

The 8 stage biosecurity framework is a collection of 8 chapters with curations of the scientific literature on key topics related to the 8 stage biosecurity framework. The 8 chapters are divided as follows: Disease Risk, Air Quality, Water Quality, Cleaning Quality, Thermal Health, Lighting & Ventilation, Occupants & Sentiments and Health/Safety Communication.

BAIOTEQ certified spaces protect occupant health, promote anti-aging and boost revenue. After the 8 chapters, a simplified version of our healthy building testing methodology has been provided. A list of references is at the end of this document

Chapter One: Disease Risk - Stage 1

Apart from the socio-economic havoc, COVID19 has brought to attention the urgent need for disease risk surveillance. It is the most fundamental step towards achieving a healthy space. Disease risk surveillance is essentially a risk management strategy that enables quick and timely response toward protecting human health and saving lives. The approach involves regular re-evaluation of emergency preparedness blueprints, i.e., the adaptability and flexibility of the existing health protocols and recovery strategies. To help counter health threats, organizations should comprehensively align their health emergency plans with the risk data obtained from their continuous disease risk surveillance programs.

According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, safety and security come second after the basic food and water needs. In a layman's perspective, safety and security is only manifested when we see police officer guarding properties, surveillance cameras, and biometric door locks.Unfortunately, this "Safety" notion tends to overlook the biological threats around us. In that light, COVID has been a wake-up call on the importance of disease risk surveillance, emergency plans, and management.

"COVID has shown that poor management of biological threats can collapse businesses”

Whenever there is a biological threat, the biological processes within the human body are altered, thereby affecting physical and psychological functions. For instance, when your body perceives threats, the body releases hormones such as adrenaline (the fight and flight hormone) and cortisol, which in turn elevates the heart rate and blood pressure. At this point, your body is set for a physical or psychological response. Even though the responses may vary from person to person, it is worth noting that psychological stress negatively affects immune function.

Medical studies have shown that chronic stress suppresses the body's immune function, leaving you vulnerable to inflammatory conditions and autoimmune illnesses. On the other hand, high blood pressure can damage your arteries, and in a worst-case scenario, you could develop hypertension or cardiovascular diseases.

That said, it is beyond reasonable doubt that indoor security threats have evolved and exuberated over the last two decades. Unfortunately, organizations don’t look into biosecurity measures until the systems are down and "badly" failing.

BAIOTEQ AI has made real-time Disease Risk Surveillance accessible to organizations of all sizes.

Chapter Two: Air Quality - Stage 2

The COVID 19 health protocols have emphasized the importance of ventilation and social distancing to help improveIndoors air quality (IAQ). However, as much we would look down upon the importance of air quality, the presence of air pollutants in any indoor environment has adverse negative effects on the occupants of the indoor space.

There is a direct correlation between poor indoor air quality and diseases such as headache, irritation, asthma, etc.Considering that almost 90% of human life is spent indoors (offices, places of residence, schools), exposure to indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as limonene, benzene and formaldehyde is overwhelming in modern times. In fact, 85% of 82,000 chemicals we find in commercial settings lack health data. Repeated exposure to these components culminates in chronic obstructive pulmonary, asthma, bronchitis, and other severe respiratory diseases.

“Exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory & cardiovascular diseases in addition to causing cancer deaths.”

To emphasize these effects, a geriatric research study conducted in Europe (GERIE) indicated a direct relationship between exposure to indoor particulate matter and cases of wheezing and asthma symptoms among building occupants. The report also found out that poor indoor air quality negatively impacts cognitive functions. The accumulation of indoor air pollutants significantly contributes to work absenteeism and low work productivity.

From an economic viewpoint, it is estimated that the US economy could save between $25 to $150 billion every year from improved indoor environments. In the quest to improve air quality, much attention has been directed towards certain consumer products and building materials that adversely degrade the air quality, i.e., "chemicals of concern."

These chemicals include flame retardants, stain repellants, and plasticizers. These products diffuse into the air and dust, which then end accumulating in our bodies. All of this can have a significant impact on occupant health and further accelerate the aging process.

BAIOTEQ’s sensors provide comprehensive air quality reporting on PM2.5, VOCs, CO2, SO2, O3, NO2, & AQI.

Chapter Three: Water Quality - Stage 3

Biologically, water is essential for the optimal metabolism process, ranging from regulating body temperature and waste removal to lubricating joints. However, you will be astonished by the fact that consumption of poor quality is a leading cause of numerous diseases and outbreaks across the world. Today, water-related illnesses such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid cause over 850,000 deaths every year. Over 240 million people are exposed to water parasite schistosomiasis and neurotoxic heavy metals such as lead which renders the water unsafe for human consumption. As of today, microbial contamination is the leading cause of waterborne diseases and outbreaks in the world.

Even in first-world countries where water quality is perceived to be good, recent studies have shown otherwise. According to a recent CDC data report, water-related outbreaks caused 431 cases, 107 severe cases, and 14 deaths. Over 78% of the cases have been directly linked to community water systems. A 2013 water infrastructure assessment carried out by the American Civil Society of Engineers showed that water infrastructure was below standard. The reported pointed that the water supply pipes (infrastructure) have degraded considering that they have been serving the communities for close to 100 years with replacement. This exposes communities to unhealthy water considering that 61% of US citizens consume tap water.

"Microbial contamination is the largest contributor to the global burden of waterborne disease, and affects 240 million people globally due to infection spread.”

In light of the Flint water crisis in Michigan State, which exposed children to unsafe levels of lead, there are a few other ways through which water quality could be compromised. First, the dissolving metals from the reaction between water and old plumbing fixtures will ultimately contaminate drinking water with neurotoxic heavy metals such as lead and copper. Second, poor water treatment, distribution, and maintenance can render water unfit for consumption, considering it could be polluted with agrochemicals, livestock waste, pesticides, fertilizers, and worst of it all industrial waste for processing and manufacturing plant. All of this can have a significant impact on occupant health and further accelerate the aging process.

Finally, the length of water storage before use also has a degrading effect on water quality.

BAIOTEQ’s ATP testing provides comprehensive data on microbial contamination in a water supply.

Chapter Four: Cleaning Quality - Stage 4

Dust not only contaminates surfaces, but it is also another type of air pollutant, and it is not only dust per se but the toxic combination contaminants resting on the surface of the dust. Typically, humans are exposed to dust through three main ways, i.e., via inhalation, dermal absorption, and direct ingestion.

Dust, particularly from clothes, furniture, and other items, is always suspended and re-suspended as we engage in indoor activities. Eventually, we end up involuntarily inhaling the dust and the chemical pollutants in it. Next, dust particles residing on the surface of human skin can be absorbed into the body via dermal absorption, and finally, indoor occupants can expose themselves to dust through hand-to-mouth ingestion "incidental dust ingestion." Well, it is estimated that adult consume at least 100 mg of dust every day, while children ingest up to 200mg daily.

"Microbial contamination on surfaces can lead to fatal infections. For instance, COVID-19 can remain airborne for up to three hours and on some surfaces for up to 72 hours.”

Generally, the amount of dust consumed may seem relatively small but it poses a great health to human health. Dust carries harmful particles such as viruses, bacteria, fabric fibers, allergens chemicals, flakes that contain lead, with are harmful to humans. However, much attention has been directed to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs); these are chemical components that are resistant to natural/biological breakdown and therefore remain in the air for a very long time.

Research studies have shown a relationship between chemicals found in the body and their working indoors environment, which means persistent exposure to these components could have worrisome effects on your health. For example, exposure to mites' feces often leads to allergic reactions and are also associated with asthmatic attacks. All of this can have a significant impact on occupant health and further accelerate the aging process.

BAIOTEQ’s ATP testing provides comprehensive data on microbial contamination on surfaces.

Chapter Five: Thermal Health - Stage 5

Thermal health, or thermal comfort, has a significant influence on the general health of indoor occupants. Usually, thermal comfort is influenced by several objective factors: humidity, air temperature, and speed. On a biological level, thermal comfort is influenced by metabolic processes and, of course, body insulations, i.e., clothing.

At least 80% of the occupants should feel comfortable with the indoor thermal condition to achieve optimal thermal comfort. This is in accordance with a 1970 model developed by Ole Fanger. Numerous studies have established that when thermal comfort fall below or exceed the acceptable model ranges there is relative decrease in occupants’ performance and productivity. The model is still practiced in most indoor space environments.

"Thermal comfort has been suggested to be more important to office workers’ performance than job stress or job satisfaction. Poor thermal increases the risk of developing serious respiratory infections and asthma.”

Truth be told, the impact of temperature and humidity is a considerable risk to humans considering that there is a general temperature rise across the globe. For example, a heatwave in France in 2003 claimed 15,000 lives. Such abnormal temperatures are only expected to rise with the current global warming crisis.

Even though the typical systems work to maintain body temperature at 37 degrees Celsius, external temperature and humidity significantly influence the health of indoor occupants. For example, high indoor temperatures are known to cause negative moods, sick building syndrome symptoms, respiratory symptoms, hate rate, and fatigue. Also, the humidity in the air tends to influence disease transmissions. For instance, a cold and dry environment optimizes the spread of influenza, while a warm, humid indoor environment catalyzes mold and fungal growth. All of this can have a significant impact on occupant health and further accelerate the aging process.

BAIOTEQ’s sensors provide comprehensive thermal health data including temperature & humidity.

Chapter Six: Lighting & Ventilation - Stage 6

Human beings, like many other organisms, have a biological rhythm that automatically synchronizes to daylight and night. That's why you feel sleepy when it becomes dark. These rhythms are controlled by the brain's circadian clock, which brings us to our first aspect, "Lighting." Subconsciously, lighting is an imperative aspect to pay attention to for a healthy indoor building.

The circadian rhythms significantly regulate the basic metabolism body process, including hormone regulation, sleep-wake cycles, immune function, alertness, and productivity. Any disruption to this natural rhythm has deleterious health outcomes. For instance, night shift workers are more likely to report cases of heart diseases, diabetes, or workplace accidents. Other studies have shown that daylight exposure helps improve vision and sleep quality while deprivation of the same leads to near nearsightedness.

“Air stagnation concentrates airborne viruses or dust. Ensuring minimum levels of ventilation can reduce influenza spread as much as having 50-60% of the people in a building vaccinated.”

The second aspect of this stage is ventilation, which has been a significant concern recently, especially with the ongoing COVID crisis. Ventilation helps bring fresh air with more dilute air pollutants. Poor indoor ventilation is significantly associated with symptoms such as cough, headache, nausea, fatigue, throat and skin irritation, dizziness, sinus congestion, etc. In worst-case scenarios where occupants have been exposed to poor ventilation, there have been reported cases of severe respiratory problems such as asthma, among other respiratory infections. All of this can have a significant impact on occupant health and further accelerate the aging process.

BAIOTEQ’s sensors provide data on lighting and ventilation by measuring indoor light & CO2.

Chapter Seven: Occupants & Sentiments - Stage 7

Organizations typically align health safety and security measures with public health, and occupancy data is at the core of ensuring that buildings are well equipped and built to facilitate a healthy indoor environment. In this era of technological advancement, data occupancy (people count) was done using facial tracking, but this has since been replaced with thermal sensors technology following privacy concerns by the public. The economic value of collecting occupancy data is high; as it helps maximize worker schedules and scaling up profits by cutting on wages and improve the number of customers shoppers in-store.

Using thermal sensors, managers can count the number of people in a building using their body temperature. With this person counting technology, managers can monitor customers' inflow, making it easy to predict peak business hours. With the occupancy data collected, managers can adjust their building to customer traffic to enhance health comfort.

“Understanding & acting on insights about occupants and their sentiments can improve occupant health by reducing sick leaves and improving mental health.”

In addition to understanding occupancy data, it is also important to the sentiments of occupants. More recently, social media has also proven to be an important tool to collect feedback and sentimental data, which helps you understand how customers feel about your building. Rather than a simple count of mentions or comments, sentiment analysis considers emotions and opinions. It involves collecting and analyzing information in the posts people share about your brand on social media. This data can help businesses formulate better health & safety communication strategies by understanding how occupants feel towards the building.

BAIOTEQ’s sensor provides accurate occupancy data while BAIOTEQ’s AI tracks occupant sentiments.

Chapter Eight: Health & Safety Communication - Stage 8

Effective health and safety communication strategies are the central pillars to ensuring a healthy indoor environment. Therefore, it is imperative that the building occupants are aware of the existing health safety protocols and measures. Unfortunately, poor safety communication is a massive problem in modern buildings, with systematic barriers being the root of ineffective safety communication, as evidenced by the COVID 19 pandemic. Working communication strategies play a crucial role in ensuring building occupants (employees and customers) always stay safe and healthy.

“By effective health & safety communication, organizations can promote health literacy, leading to increased participation in healthy behaviours and also employer benefits, like providing an estimated 4:1 R.O.I.”
BAIOTEQ’s health and safety communication methods can increase public confidence in the building by 60%. 

Chapter Nine: Testing Methodology 

‘Air Quality’ (Max 20 points): 20 Points (IAQ 0-10); 19 Points (IAQ 11-20); 18 Points (IAQ 21-30); 17 Points (IAQ 31-40); 16 Points (IAQ 41-50); 15 Points (IAQ 51-60); 14 Points (IAQ 61-70); 13 Points (IAQ 71-80); 12 Points (IAQ 81-100); 11 Points (IAQ 101-125); 10 Points (IAQ 125+)

‘Water Quality’ (Max 20 points): 20 Points (ATP 0-10); 19 Points (ATP 11-20); 18 Points (ATP 21-30); 17 Points (ATP 31-50); 16 Points (ATP 51-80); 15 Points (ATP 81-100); 14 Points (ATP101-120); 13 Points (ATP 121-160); 12 Points (ATP 161-200); 11 Points (ATP 201-300); 10 Points (ATP 300+)

'Cleaning Quality' (Max 20 points): 20 Points (ATP 0-10); 19 Points (ATP 11-20); 18 Points (ATP 21-30); 17 Points (ATP 31-50); 16 Points (ATP 51-80); 15 Points (ATP 81-100); 14 Points (ATP 101-120); 13 Points (ATP 121-160); 12 Points (ATP 161-200); 11 Points (ATP 201-300); 10 Points (ATP 300+)

‘Thermal Health’ (Max 20 points):

Includes Temperature & Relative Humidity: Temperature:

 10 Points (18.5-20.5 Celcius); 9 Points (+/-.5C); 8 Points (+/-.5C); 7 Points (+/-.5C); 6 Points (+/-.5C); 5 Points (+/-.5C); 4 Points (+/-.5C); 3 Points (+/-.5C); 2 Points (+/-.5C); 1 Points (+/-.5C); 0 Points (+/-.5C)

Relative Humidity:

 10 Points (45%-55% Relative Humidity); 9 Points (+/-5%); 8 Points (+/-5%); 7 Points (+/-5%); 6 Points (+/-5%); 5 Points (+/-5%); 4 Points (+/-5%); 3 Points (+/-5%); 2 Points (+/-5%); 1 Points (+/-5%); 0 Points (+/-5%)

‘Lighting and Ventilation’ (Max 20 points):

Lighting:

 10 Points (100%); 9 Points (99-90%); 8 Points (89-80%); 7 Points (79-70%); 6 Points (69-60%); 5 Points (59-50%); 4 Points (49-40%); 3 Points (39-30%); 2 Points (29-20%); 1 Points (19-10%); 0 Points (9-0%)

Ventilation- Carbon Dioxide:

 10 Points (Below 200ppm); 9 Points (201-300ppm); 8 Points (301-400ppm); 7 Points (401-500ppm); 6 Points (501-600ppm); 5 Points (601-700ppm); 4 Points (701-800ppm); 3 Points (801-900ppm); 2 Points (901-1000ppm); 1 Points (1001-1100ppm); 0 Points (1101 ppm+)

The final building health score is a sum of all these scores and is based out of 100. Buildings with building health score 90+ are eligible for a BAIOTEQ STAR while buildings between 80-89 are eligible healthy buildings. Buildings below 79 are classified as a health risk.

*Measurement units based on BAIOTEQ’s sensors output units.

References

1. Piers MacNaughton et al., “The Impact of Working in a Green Certified Building on Cognitive Function and Health,” Building†and†Environment†114 (2017): 178–186.

2. P. MacNaughton et al., “Economic, Environmental and Health Implications of Enhanced

Ventilation in Office Buildings, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public†Health 12, no. 11 (2015)∫†14709–14722.

3. B. Stephens, T. Brennan, and L. Harriman, “Selecting Ventilation Air Filters to Reduce PM2.5 of Outdoor Origin,” ASHRAE†Journal¨†September 2016, 12–20.

4. J. G. Laurent et al., “Reduced Cognitive Function during a Heat Wave among Residents of Non-air-conditioned Buildings: An Observational Study of Young Adults in the Summer of 2016,” PLOS†Medicine†15, no. 7 (2018): e1002605.

5. O. Seppänen, W. J. Fisk, and Q. H. Lei, “Effect of Temperature on Task Performance in Office Environment” (paper, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, July 2006), http://eta-publications.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/lbnl-60946.pdf.

6. Tyler Hoyt et al., “CBE Thermal Comfort Tool,” Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, 2017, http://comfort.cbe.berkeley.edu/.

7. B. Kingma and W. van Marken Lichtenbelt, “Energy Consumption in Buildings and Female Thermal Demand,” Nature†Climate†Change†5, no. 12 (2015): 1054.

8. A. Lydgate, “Is Your Thermostat Sexist?,” New†Yorker¨†August 3, 2015.

9. S. Karjalainen, “Thermal Comfort and Gender: A Literature Review,” Indoor†Air†22, no. 2

(2012): 96–109.

10. Y. Zhai et al., “Human Comfort and Perceived Air Quality in Warm and Humid Environments with Ceiling Fans,” Building†and†Environment†90 (2015): 178–185.

11. Joseph Allen and Jose Guillermo Cedeno Laurent, “Want Air Conditioning and a Healthier Planet? Here’s One Step We Can Take Today,” The†Hill, July 30, 2018, https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/energy-environment/399549-want-air-conditioning-and-a-healthier-planet-heres-one.

12. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Thermal Stress and Deaths during Heat Waves,” https://iaqscience.lbl.gov/cc-thermal.

13. Environmental Protection Agency, “National Primary Drinking Water Regulations,” March 22, 2018, https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-waterregulations.

14. ASHRAE, Legionellosis∫†Risk†Management†for†Building†Water†Systems¨†ANSI / ASHRAE Standard 188-2018, 2018, https://www.ashrae.org/technical-resources/bookstore/ansi-ashrae-standard-188-2018-legionellosis-risk-management-for-building-water-systems.

15. D. L. Ryan, “High Lead Levels Found at Hundreds of Massachusetts Schools,” Boston†Globe¨ May 2, 2017.

16. Environmental Protection Agency, Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations†for†Primacy†Agencies†and†Public†Water†Systems, March 2016, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-07/documents/occtmarch2016updated.pdf.

17. J. Allen et al., The†9†Foundations†of†a†Healthy†Building†(Boston: Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 2017), 21, 9_Foundations_of_a_Healthy_Building.February

_2017.pdf.

18. D. Licina et al., “Clothing-Mediated Exposure to Chemicals and Particles,” Environmental

Science†and†Technology†53, no. 10 (2019): 5559–5575Æ

19. Environmental Protection Agency, “Update for Chapter 5 of the Exposure Factors Handbook: Soil and Dust Ingestion,” September 2017, http://ofmpub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p _download_id=532518.

20. P.J.Lioy¨†Dust∫†The†Inside†Story†of†Its†Role†in†the†September†11th Aftermath¨†foreword by T.H. Kean (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011).

21. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “OSHA Factsheet: Laboratory Safety Noise,”  https://www.osha.gov/Publications/laboratory/OSHAfactsheet-laboratorysafety-

noise.pdf; “Chapter 39: Noise Hazard Assessment and Control,”,

http://www2.lbl.gov/ehs/pub3000/CH39.html.

22. D. Owen, “Is Noise Pollution the Next Public Health Crisis?,” New†Yorker¨†May 6, 2019.

23. S. Pujol et al., “Association between Ambient Noise Exposure and School Performance of Children Living in An Urban Area: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study,” Journal†of†Urban Health†91, no. 2 (2013): 256–271.

24. A. W. Correia et al., “Residential Exposure to Aircraft Noise and Hospital Admissions for

Cardiovascular Diseases: Multi-airport Retrospective Study,” British†Medical†Journal†347 (2013): f5561.

25. S. Ganesan et al., “The Impact of Shift Work on Sleep, Alertness and Performance in

Healthcare Workers,” Scientific†Reports†9, no. 1 (2019): 4635; S. M. James et al., “Shift Work: Disrupted Circadian Rhythms and Sleep—Implications for Health and Well-Being,” Current†Sleep Medicine†Reports†3, no. 2 (2017): 104–112.

26. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans, Painting¨

Firefighting¨†and†Shiftwork¨†IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 98 (Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer Press, 2010).

27. O. Keis et al., “Influence of Blue-Enriched Classroom Lighting on Students’ Cognitive

Performance,” Trends†in†Neuroscience†and†Education†3, nos. 3–4 (2014): 86–92; B. M. T. Shamsul et al., “Effects of Light’s Colour Temperatures on Visual Comfort Level, Task Performances, and Alertness among Students,” American†Journal†of†Public†Health†Research†1, no. 7 (2013): 159–165.

28. L. M. James, “Blue-Enriched White Light in the Workplace Improves Self-Reported Alertness, Performance and Sleep Quality, Scandinavian†Journal†of†Work¨†Environment†and†Health 34, no. 4 (2008): 297.

29. E. O. Wilson, Biophilia†(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984).

30. R. Ulrich, “View through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery,” Science†224, no. 4647 (1984): 420–421.

31. J. Yin et al., “Physiological and Cognitive Performance of Exposure to Biophilic Indoor

Environment,” Building†and†Environment†132 (2018): 255–262.

32. J. Yin et al., “Effects of Biophilic Interventions in Office on Stress Reaction and Cognitive Function: A Randomized Crossover Study in Virtual Reality,” Indoor†Air, published ahead of print, August 16, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12593.

33. J. Yin et al., “Restorative Effects of Biophilic Indoor Environment: A Between-Subject

Experiment in Virtual Reality,” Environment†International†(2020).

34. J. Allen et al., 9†Foundations, 23

35. Juliette Kayyem, conversation with authors, May 2019.

36. B. J. Allen and R. Loyear, Enterprise Security Risk Management∫†Concepts†and†Applications (Brooksfield, CT: Rothstein, 2017).

37. W. J. Fisk, D. Black, and G. Brunner, “Benefits and Costs of Improved IEQ in US Offices,” Indoor†Air†21, no. 5 (2011): 357–367.

Supporting Evidence

1. Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(16):1564-1567. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2004973 

2. Charles P. Gerba P, Sonia L.M. Fankem MMP, Stephanie A. Boone MP, Marlene Gaither MMR. Outbreak of Norovirus Illness in a College Summer Camp: Impact of Cleaning on Occurrence of Norovirus on Fomites | National Environmental Health Association: NEHA. J Environ Health. 2014;76.8:20-26. 

3. Boone SA, Gerba CP. Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73(6):1687-1696. doi:10.1128/AEM.02051-06 

4. Barker J, Bloomfield SF. Survival of Salmonella in bathrooms and toilets in domestic homes following salmonellosis. J Appl Microbiol. 2000;89(1):137-144. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01091.x 

5. Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: A meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(8):1372-1381. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610 

6. Show Me the Science – When & How to Use Hand Sanitizer in Community Settings | Handwashing | CDC. 

7. Garza JL, Cavallari JM, Wakai S, et al. Traditional and environmentally preferable cleaning product exposure and health symptoms in custodians. Am J Ind Med. 2015;58(9):988-995. doi:10.1002/ajim.22484 

8. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Protecting Workers Who Use Cleaning Chemicals. 2012. 

9. Zock JP, Plana E, Jarvis D, et al. The use of household cleaning sprays and adult asthma: An international longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176(8):735-741. doi:10.1164/rccm.200612-1793OC 

10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Show Me the Science – When & How to Use Hand Sanitizer in Community Settings | Handwashing. 

11. Jumaa PA. Hand hygiene: Simple and complex. Int J Infect Dis. 2005;9(1):3-14. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2004.05.005 

12. Parkes LO, Hota SS. Sink-Related Outbreaks and Mitigation Strategies in Healthcare Facilities. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2018;20(10). doi:10.1007/s11908-018-0648-3 

13. Chattman M, Maxwell SL, Gerba CP. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities. J Environ Health. 2011;73(7):26-29. 

14. Schaffner DW, Jensen D, Gerba CP, Shumaker D, Arbogast JW. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps. J Food Prot. 2018;81(2):218-225. doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-251 

15. Kotay SM, Donlan RM, Ganim C, Barry K, Christensen BE, Mathers AJ. Droplet- Rather than Aerosol-Mediated Dispersion Is the Primary Mechanism of Bacterial Transmission from Contaminated Hand-Washing Sink Traps. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2019;85(2). doi:10.1128/AEM.01997-18 

16. Huang C, Ma W, Stack S. The hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods: A review of the evidence. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(8):791-798. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.02.019 

17. Lawson A, Vaganay-Miller M. The effectiveness of a poster intervention on hand hygiene practice and compliance when using public restrooms in a university setting. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(24). doi:10.3390/ijerph16245036 

18. Ford EW, Boyer BT, Menachemi N, Huerta TR. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(10):1851-1856. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301477 

19. Pellegrino R, Crandall PG, O’Bryan CA, Seo HS. A review of motivational models for improving hand hygiene among an increasingly diverse food service workforce. Food Control. 2015;50:446-456. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.09.015 

20. Wu F, Takaro TK. Childhood asthma and environmental interventions. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(6):971-975. doi:10.1289/ehp.8989 

21. Calderón MA, Linneberg A, Kleine-Tebbe J, et al. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(1):38-48. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.012 

22. Velazquez S, Griffiths W, Dietz L, et al. Protecting Workers Who Use Cleaning Chemicals. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;5(1):175-180. doi:10.1111/j.0105-1873.2004.00421.x 

23. Behroozy A, Keegel TG. Wet-work exposure: A main risk factor for occupational hand dermatitis. Saf Health Work. 2014;5(4):175-180. doi:10.1016/j.shaw.2014.08.001 

24. ASTM E1971-19. Standard Guide for Stewardship for the Cleaning of Commercial and Institutional Buildings. West Conshohocken, PA; 2019. 

25. World Health Organization. Cleaning and Disinfection of Environmental Surfaces in the Context of COVID-19.; 2020. 

26. Gorman T, Dropkin J, Kamen J, et al. Controlling health hazards to hospital workers: A reference guide. New Solut. 2014;23(1_suppl):1-167. doi:10.2190/ns.23.suppl 

27. Velazquez S, Griffiths W, Dietz L, et al. From one species to another: A review on the interaction between chemistry and microbiology in relation to cleaning in the built environment. Indoor Air. 2019;29(6):880-894. doi:10.1111/ina.12596 

28. Zhong L, Su FC, Batterman S. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in conventional and high performance school buildings in the U.S. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(1). doi:10.3390/ijerph14010100 

29. Zock J-P, Plana E, Jarvis D, et al. The use of household cleaning sprays and adult asthma: an international longitudinal study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176(8):735-741. doi:10.1164/rccm.200612-1793OC 

30. World Health Organization. Managing Epidemics.; 2018. 

31. World Health Organization. WHO’s Emergencies: Work in Prepare, Prevent, Detect and Respond. World Health Organization; 2018. 

32. World Health Organization. WHO Timeline - COVID-19. WHO Timeline - COVID-19. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19. Published 2020. 

33. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Report - 134.; 2020. 

34. World Health Organization. Environmental health in emergencies : Vulnerable groups. Public Health Management of Chemical Incidents. 

35. Lockwood NR. Crisis Management in Today’s Business Environment: HR’s Strategic Role.; 2005. 

36. Skryabina E, Reedy G, Amlôt R, Jaye P, Riley P. What is the value of health emergency preparedness exercises? A scoping review study. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2017;21:274-283. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.12.010 

37. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Evacuation Plans and Procedures eTool | Emergency Action Plan - Develop & Implement an Emergency Action Plan (EAP). 

38. American Red Cross Ready Rating. SMB Prepared Playbook. 2015. 

39. U.S. Small Business Administration. Disaster Preparedness and Recovery Plan.; 2019. 

40. World Health Organization. COVID‑19 Strategy Update - 14 April 2020.; 2020. 

41. Business Continuity Plan | Ready.gov. 

42. Goldman SB. PANDEMIC MANUAL Planning and Responding to a Global Health Crisis for Facility Management Professionals.; 2020. 

43. Benedek DM, Fullerton C, Ursano RJ. First Responders: Mental Health Consequences of Natural and Human-Made Disasters for Public Health and Public Safety Workers. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28(1):55-68. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144037 

44. United Nations. COVID-19 and the Need for Action on Mental Health.; 2020. 

45. World Health Organization. Mental health in emergencies. WHO Fact Sheets. 

46. Society of Occupational Medicine. Returning to the Workplace after the COVID-19 Lockdown.; 2020. 

47. Mental health: strengthening our response. 

48. Stress Weakens the Immune System. 

49. WHO. Environmental health in emergencies : Vulnerable groups. Public Health Management of Chemical Incidents. 

50. Mike S. Make Your Business Resilient. 

51. World Health Organization. Managing Epidemics.; 2018. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/managing-epidemics-interactive.pdf.

52. World Health Organization. WHO’s Work in Emergencies: Prepare, Prevent, Detect and Respond - Annual Report 2018. World Health Organization; 2018. https://www.who.int/emergencies/who-work-in-emergencies/en/.

53. WHO Timeline - COVID-19. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19. Published 2020.

54. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Report - 134.; 2020. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200602-covid-19-sitrep-134.pdf?sfvrsn=cc95e5d5_2.

55. Occupational Health and Safety Administration. How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations. 2001. 

56. Lockwood NR. Crisis Management in Today’s Business Environment: HR’s Strategic Role.; 2005. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/Documents/1205RQuartpdf.pdf.

57. Skryabina E, Reedy G, Amlôt R, Jaye P, Riley P. What is the value of health emergency preparedness exercises? A scoping review study. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2017;21:274-283. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.12.010 

58. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Evacuation Plans and Procedures eTool | Emergency Action Plan - Develop & Implement an Emergency Action Plan (EAP). https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/evacuation/implementation.html.

59. American Red Cross Ready Rating. SMB Prepared Playbook. 2015. https://www.readyrating.org/Resource-Center/All-Resources/smb-prepared-playbook.

60. U.S. Small Business Administration. Disaster Preparedness and Recovery Plan.; 2019. https://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/2019-08/2019 DPRP 3-2b-FINAL.pdf.

61. World Health Organization. COVID‑19 Strategy Update - 14 April 2020.; 2020. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/covid-19-strategy-update---14-april-2020.

62. Weather, Climate & Catastrophe Insight.; 2019. http://catastropheinsight.aon.com. 

63. Coronese M, Lamperti F, Keller K, Chiaromonte F, Roventini A. Evidence for sharp increase in the economic damages of extreme natural disasters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;116(43):21450-21455. doi:10.1073/pnas.1907826116 

64. Global Increase in Climate-Related Disasters.; 2015. https://www.adb.org/publications/global-increase-climate-related-disasters. 

65. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook, April 2020: The Great Lockdown.; 2020. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/04/14/weo-april-2020.

66. Business Continuity Plan | Ready.gov. https://www.ready.gov/business-continuity-plan. 

67. FEMA. Make Your Business Resilient.; 2015. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1441212988001-1aa7fa978c5f999ed088dcaa815cb8cd/3a_BusinessInfographic-1.pdf. 

68. Evacuation Plans and Procedures eTool | Emergency Action Plan - Shelter-in-Place | Occupational Safety and Health Administration. https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/evacuation/shelterinplace.html.

69. CDC Emergency Preparedness and You | Learn How to Shelter in Place. https://emergency.cdc.gov/shelterinplace.asp.

70. Build A Kit | Ready.gov. https://www.ready.gov/kit.

71. Coronavirus Makes Work from Home the New Normal. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/all-things-work/pages/remote-work-has-become-the-new-normal.aspx.

72. COVID-19: Making remote work productive and secure: PwC. https://www.pwc.com/us/en/library/covid-19/making-remote-work-productive-secure.html.. 

73. Kluch S, Hickman A. 4 Workplace Adjustments to Help Parents Working From Home.; 2020. https://www.gallup.com/workplace/300662/workplace-adjustments-help-parents-working-home.aspx. 

74. Willis Towers Watson. North American companies take steps to protect employees from coronavirus epidemic. 2020. https://www.willistowerswatson.com/en-US/News/2020/03/north-american-companies-take-steps-to-protect-employees-from-coronavirus-epidemic.

75. KFF. Taking Stock of Essential Workers | KFF. https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-policy-watch/taking-stock-of-essential-workers/. Published 2020.

76. World Health Organization. Mental health in emergencies. WHO Fact Sheets. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-in-emergencies. Published 2019. 

77. United Nations. COVID-19 and the Need for Action on Mental Health.; 2020. https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/un_policy_brief-covid_and_mental_health_final.pdf.

78. Business Continuity Plan | Ready.gov. https://www.ready.gov/business-continuity-plan. Published 2020.

79. Emergency Management Agency F. Continuity Guidance Circular - February 2018.; 2018. 

80. Goldman SB. PANDEMIC MANUAL Planning and Responding to a Global Health Crisis for Facility Management Professionals.; 2020. www.ifmafoundation.org. 

81. Emergency Preparedness and Response | Getting Started - Evacuation & Shelter-in-Place. https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/emergencypreparedness/gettingstarted_evacuation.html.  

82. Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place - Guidance for State, Local, Tribal and Territorial Partners.; 2019. 

83. U.S. Fire Administration. Operational Lessons Learned in Disaster Response.; 2015. 

84. Ciena. 68% of British Adults Will Work Remotely More Often After COVID-19. https://www.ciena.com/about/newsroom/press-releases/68-percent-of-british-adults-will-work-remotely-more-often-after-covid-19.html.. 

85. U.S. Workers Discovering Affinity for Remote Work. https://news.gallup.com/poll/306695/workers-discovering-affinity-remote-work.aspx.

86. Policy Responses to COVID-19. International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U.

87. U.S. economy loses 20.5 million jobs, unemployment rate rises to 14.7% - Marketplace. https://www.marketplace.org/2020/05/08/u-s-economy-loses-20-5-million-jobs-unemployment-rate-rises-to-14-7/.88. Global Economic Prospects.; 2020. https://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-economic-prospects.=

89. Aftershock Forecast Overview. U.S. Geological Survey. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/data/oaf/overview.php.

90. Ferris E, Petz D, Stark C. The Year of Recurring Disasters: A Review of Natural Disasters in 2012.; 2013. https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-year-of-recurring-disasters-a-review-of-natural-disasters-in-2012/. 

91. Markel H, Lipman HB, Navarro JA, et al. Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. J Am Med Assoc. 2007;298(6):644-654. doi:10.1001/jama.298.6.644 

92. Live: WHO reports largest 24-hour increase in coronavirus cases | News | Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/06/brazil-coronavirus-death-toll-nears-50000-live-updates-200620230549593.html.

93. Wilson S. In the nation’s biggest states, a spike in coronavirus comes with the economic reopening - The Washington Post. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/in-the-nations-biggest-states-a-spike-in-coronavirus-comes-with-the-economic-reopening/2020/06/21/e08457e4-af4f-11ea-b1e7-33e88fa24c71_story.html. Published June 21, 2020. 

94. Chappell B, Stein R. U.S. Hits 2 Million Coronavirus Cases As Many States See A Surge Of Patients : Coronavirus Live Updates : NPR. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/06/10/873473805/u-s-hits-2-million-coronavirus-cases-as-many-states-see-a-surge-of-patients. Published June 10, 2020. 95. Bosman J, Smith M. Coronavirus Cases Spike Across Sun Belt as Economy Lurches into Motion - The New York Times. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/14/us/coronavirus-united-states.html. Published June 14, 2020.

96. CDC. COVID-19 Guidance: Businesses and Employers | CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/guidance-business-response.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fspecific-groups%2Fguidance-business-response.html. Published 2020. 97. HMG. Our Plan to Rebuild: The UK Government’s COVID-19 Recovery Strategy.; 2020. 

98. PricewaterhouseCoopers. Returning to the workplace after COVID-19: What boards should be thinking about: PwC. https://www.pwc.com/us/en/services/governance-insights-center/library/covid-19-returning-workplace-boards.html. Published 2020.

99. Society of Occupational Medicine. Returning to the Workplace after the COVID-19 Lockdown.; 2020. https://www.som.org.uk/Returning_to_the_workplace_COVID-19_toolkit_FINAL.pdf. 100. Recovery Readiness: A How-to Guide for Reopening Your Workplace | Cushman & Wakefield.; 2020. https://www.cushmanwakefield.com/en/insights/covid-19/recovery-readiness-a-how-to-guide-for-reopening-your-workplace.

101. GUIDANCE FOR CLEANING AND DISINFECTING.; 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/pdf/Reopening_America_Guidance.pdf. 

102. Getting Back to Work: Preparing Buildings for Re-Entry Amid COVID-19.; 2020. https://boma.informz.net/BOMA/data/images/Getting Back To Work Preparing Buildings for Re Entry.pdf.

103. Getting Your Workplace Ready for COVID-19.; 2020. www.WHO.int. 104. Re-Occupancy Assessment Tool V2.0.; 2020. http://content.aia.org/sites/default/files/2020-06/STN20_ 344901_ReOccupancyAssessmentTool-V02_sm_v09.pdf. 

105. Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19.; 2020. https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3990.pdf. 

106. JLL. COVID-19: Top 10 focus areas for workplace re-entry checklist. https://www.us.jll.com/en/views/covid19-top-10-focus-areas-for-workplace-re-entry. Published 2020.

107. Society of Occupational Medicine. Returning to the Workplace after the COVID-19 Lockdown A Toolkit In Association With.; 2020. https://www.som.org.uk/Returning_to_the_workplace_COVID-19_toolkit_FINAL.pdf. 

108. Mehra R. Global public health problem of sudden cardiac death. J Electrocardiol. 2007;40(6 SUPPL. 1). doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2007.06.023 

109. Saving Sudden Cardiac Arrest Victims in the Workplace. https://www.osha.gov/Publications/3185.html.

110. Konig M. Every Second Counts - AED Fact Sheet 2013 - Final.; 2013. www.heart.org/policyfactsheets.

111. Krug EG, Sharma GK, Lozano R. The Global Burden of Injuries. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(4). https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.90.4.523.

112. First Aid for a Safer Future - Focus on Europe.; 2009. 

113. Sixty Percent of Americans Not Practicing for Disaster: FEMA urges everyone to prepare by participating in National PrepareAthon! Day on April 30 | FEMA.gov. https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2015/04/28/sixty-percent-americans-not-practicing-disaster-fema-urges-everyone-prepare.

114. Hsieh F. Anaphylaxis. Cleveland Clinic Center for Continuing Education - Disease Management. http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/allergy/anaphylaxis/. Published December 2013.

115. Turner PJ, Jerschow E, Umasunthar T, Lin R, Campbell DE, Boyle RJ. Fatal Anaphylaxis: Mortality Rate and Risk Factors. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(5):1169-1178. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2017.06.031 

116. Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: Report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6 SUPPL.):S1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.007 

117. Berryman P, Lukes E, Mancini ME, Cazzell M, Kardong-Edgren S, Cason CL. Improving Workplace Safety Training Using a Self-Directed CPR-AED Learning Program. AAOHN J. 2009;57(4):159-167. doi:10.3928/08910162-20090401-02 

118. Access to Epinephrine | Food Allergy Research & Education. 

119. Cost of natural disaster losses worldwide 2000-2019 | Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/612561/natural-disaster-losses-cost-worldwide-by-type-of-loss/. 

120. Anzellini V, Desai B, Fung V, et al. Global Disaster Displacement Risk - A Baseline for Future Work | IDMC.; 2017. https://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/global-disaster-displacement-risk-a-baseline-for-future-work. 

121. CDC Emergency Preparedness and You | Learn How to Shelter in Place. 

122. Coronavirus Makes Work from Home the New Normal. 

123. COVID-19: Making remote work productive and secure: PwC. 

124. Kluch S, Hickman A. 4 Workplace Adjustments to Help Parents Working From Home.; 2020. 

125. Willis Towers Watson. North American companies take steps to protect employees from coronavirus epidemic. 2020. 

126. Kaiser Family Foundation. Taking Stock of Essential Workers | KFF. 

127. Interim Technical Note Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Planning and Ending Gender-Based Violence, Female Genital Mutilation and Child Marriage.; 2020. 

128. Mulyasari F, Inoue S, Prashar S, et al. Disaster Preparedness: Looking through the Lens of Hospitals in Japan. Int J Disaster Risk Sci. 2013;1375(2):89-100. doi:10.1007/s13753-013-0010-1 

129. Lewnard JA, Liu VX, Jackson ML, et al. Incidence, clinical outcomes, and transmission dynamics of severe coronavirus disease 2019 in California and Washington: Prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369(9). doi:10.1136/bmj.m1923 

130. Khera R, Jain S, Lin Z, Ross JS, Krumholz H. Evaluation of the Anticipated Burden of COVID-19 on Hospital-Based Healthcare Services Across the United States. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.04.01.20050492 

131. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Every Business Should Have a Plan. 2014. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1388786699366-f6593a40cee347ce4a8def70a28b748e/Business_quadfold_brochure_2012.pdf. 

132. America Society of Civil Engineers. Alternate Care Sites Retrofitting Guidance. https://www.usace.army.mil/Coronavirus/Alternate-Care-Sites/. Published 2020. 

133. CDC. Considerations for Alternate Care Sites | CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/alternative-care-sites.html. Published 2020.

134. Emergency Relief Funds Throw Employees a Lifeline During Pandemic. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/benefits/pages/emergency-relief-funds-throw-employees-lifeline-during-pandemic.aspx.

135. Employer-Assisted Housing: The Basics | National Housing Conference. https://www.nhc.org/policy-guide/employer-assisted-housing-the-basics/.

136. Stockham D, Clontz B. Emergency Assistance Funds (EAFs) for Employee Hardship and Disaster Relief: Legal, Tax and Design Considerations. 2015. https://www.pgdc.com/pgdc/emergency-assistance-funds-eafs-employee-hardship-and-disaster-relief-legal-tax-and-design-cons. 

137. World Health Organization. Influenza (Seasonal). 

138. Duncan IG, Taitel MS, Zhang J, Kirkham HS. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2012;10(1):10. doi:10.1186/1478-7547-10-10 

139. McKibbin WJ, Sidorenko AA. The Global Costs of an Influenza Pandemic. Milken Inst Rev. 2007:18-27. 

140. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu: A Toolkit for Employers. 

141. Scheil-Adlung X, Sandner L. The Case for Paid Sick Leave.; 2010. 

142. Heymann J, Rho HJ, Schmitt J, Earle A. Contagion Nation: A Comparison of Paid Sick Day Policies in 22 Countries.; 2009. http://www.issuelab.org/permalink/resource/2939. 

143. Jacobs B, Ir P, Bigdeli M, Annear PL, Van Damme W. Addressing access barriers to health services: An analytical framework for selectingappropriate interventions in low-income Asian countries. Health Policy and Planning. doi:10.1093/heapol/czr038 

144. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Access to Health Services | Healthy People 2020. 

145. Estimating the Distributional Impacts of Alternative Policies to Provide Paid Sick Days in the United States Issue Brief-Worker Leave Analysis and Simulation Series 1.; 2017. 

146. Braveman P, Gottlieb L. The social determinants of health: It’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health Rep. 2014;129(SUPPL. 2):19-31. doi:10.1177/00333549141291s206 

147. National Cancer Institute. Harms of Cigarette Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting. 

148. Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Destaillats H, et al. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: Emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(9):1218-1226. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103500 

149. Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, et al. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(4):341-350. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1211128 

150. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020: Social Determinants of Health. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-of-health.. 

151. Braveman P, Gottlieb L. The Social determinents of Health: It’s Time to Consider the Causes of the Causes. 2014;129:19-31. doi:10.1177/00333549141291S206 

152. Weissman J, Stern R, Fielding S, Epstein A. Delayed Access to Health Care: Risk Factors, Reasons, and Consequences. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(4):325-331. 

153. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Access to Health Services | Healthy People 2020. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Access-to-Health-Services. 

154. Gulliford M, Figueroa-Munoz J, Morgan M, et al. What does “access to health care” mean? J Heal Serv Res Policy. 2002;7(3):186-188. doi:10.1258/135581902760082517 

155. Raub A, Chung P, Batra P, et al. Paid Leave for Personal Illness: A Detailed Look at Approaches Across OECD Countries.; 2018. 

156. Expanding Access to Paid Sick Leave.; 2010. 

157. Scheil-Adlung X, Sandner L. The Case for Paid Sick Leave.; 2010. https://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/healthreport/SickleaveNo9FINAL.pdf.

158. Heymann J, Rho HJ, Schmitt J, Earle A. Contagion Nation: A Comparison of Paid Sick Day Policies in 22 Countries.; 2009. www.cepr.net.

159. Estimating the Distributional Impacts of Alternative Policies to Provide Paid Sick Days in the United States Issue Brief-Worker Leave Analysis and Simulation Series 1.; 2017. https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation.

160. Scheil-Adlung X, Sandner L. Evidence on paid sick leave: Observations in times of crisis. Intereconomics. 2010;45(5):313-321. doi:10.1007/s10272-010-0351-6 

161. Heymann J, Earle A, Hayes J. The Work, Family, and Equity Index How Does the United States Measure Up? About the Project on Global Working Families. www.mcgill.ca/ihsp.

162. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020: Social Determinants of Health. 

163. Gulliford M, Figueroa-Munoz J, Morgan M, et al. What does “access to health care” mean? J Heal Serv Res Policy. 2002;7(3):186-188. doi:10.1258/135581902760082517 

164. Greenbaum E, Meinert E. Vaccinating Against the Flu: A Business Case. 2010;(September). 

165. MetLife. Work Redefined: A New Age of Benefits. 2017. https://benefittrends.metlife.com/us-perspectives/work-redefined-a-new-age-of-benefits/. 

166. Benedek DM, Fullerton C, Ursano RJ. First Responders: Mental Health Consequences of Natural and Human-Made Disasters for Public Health and Public Safety Workers. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28(1):55-68. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144037 

167. World Health Organization. Influenza (Seasonal). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en/. Published 2018.

168. Duncan IG, Taitel MS, Zhang J, Kirkham HS. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2012;10(1):10. doi:10.1186/1478-7547-10-10 

169. McKibbin WJ, Sidorenko AA. The Global Costs of an Influenza Pandemic. Milken Inst Rev. 2007. 

170. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu: A Toolkit for Employers. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/business/toolkit_seasonal_flu_for_businesses_and_employers.pdf. 

171. Arriola C, Garg S, Anderson EJ, et al. Influenza vaccination modifies disease severity among community-dwelling adults hospitalized with influenza. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(8):1289-1297. doi:10.1093/cid/cix468 

172. World Health Organization. Tobacco. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/. Published 2017. 

173. World Health Organization. WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2015. WHO Mag. 2015:1-359. doi:978 92 4 156492 2 

174. National Cancer Institute. Harms of Cigarette Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/tobacco/cessation-fact-sheet. 

175. Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, et al. 21st-Century Hazards of Smoking and Benefits of Cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(4):341-350. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1211128 

176. Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Destaillats H, et al. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: Emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(9):1218-1226. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103500 

177. Wang X, Derakhshandeh R, Liu J, et al. One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(8):1-11. doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003858 

178. Mello S, Bigman CA, Sanders-Jackson A, Tan ASL. Perceived harm of secondhand electronic cigarette vapors and policy support to restrict public vaping: Results from a national survey of US adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(5):686-693. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntv232 

179. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD; 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK179276/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK179276.pdf. 

180. World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2017 - Monitoring Tobacco Use and Prevention Policies. Geneva, Switzerland; 2017. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255874/9789241512824-eng.pdf?sequence=1%0Ahttps://www.world-heart-federation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WHO-Report-on-the-global-tobacco-epidemic-2017-EMBARGOED.pdf%0Ahttp://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/1. 

181. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-Free Policies. Geneva, Switzerland; 2009. https://www.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/handbook13.pdf. 

182. Gan Q, Hammond SK, Jiang Y, Yang Y, Hu TW. Effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in lowering secondhand smoke concentrations in offices in China. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50(5):570-575. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181638640 

183. MacNaughton P, Adamkiewicz G, Arku RE, Vallarino J, Levy DE. The impact of a smoke-free policy on environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments. Sci Total Environ. 2016;557-558:676-680. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.110 

184. Kaufman P, Zhang B, Bondy SJ, Klepeis N, Ferrence R. Not just “a few wisps”: Real-time measurement of tobacco smoke at entrances to office buildings. Tob Control. 2011;20(3):212-218. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.041277 

185. Reitzel LR, Cromley EK, Li Y, et al. The Effect of Tobacco Outlet Density and Proximity on Smoking Cessation. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(2):315-320. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.191676 

186. Polinski J, Howell B, Gagnon M, Kymes S, Brennan T, Shrank W. Impact of CVS Pharmacy’s Discontinuance of Tobacco Sales on Cigarette Purchasing (2012-2014). Am J Public Health. 2017;107(4):556-562. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303612 

187. Klepeis NE, Nelson WC, Ott WR, et al. The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): A resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2001;11(3):231-252. doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500165 

188. The National Academies. How Infection Works, Entering the Human Host — The National Academies. 

189. Smieszek T, Lazzari G, Salathé M. Assessing the Dynamics and Control of Droplet- and Aerosol-Transmitted Influenza Using an Indoor Positioning System. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):2185-2185. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-38825-y 

190. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology. In Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice: An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics.; 2019. 

191. Mendell MJ, Mirer AG, Cheung K, Tong M, Douwes J. Respiratory and allergic health effects of dampness, mold, and dampness-related agents: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(6):748-756. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002410 

192. Bekö G, Clausen G, Weschler CJ. Is the use of particle air filtration justified? Costs and benefits of filtration with regard to health effects, building cleaning and occupant productivity. Build Environ. 2008;43(10):1647-1657. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.10.006 

193. Joshi S. The sick building syndrome. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2008;12(2):61-64. doi:10.4103/0019-5278.43262 

194. Selgrade MK, Plopper CG, Gilmour MI, Conolly RB, Foos BSP. Assessing the health effects and risks associated with children’s inhalation exposures - Asthma and allergy. J Toxicol Environ Heal - Part A Curr Issues. 2008;71(3):196-207. doi:10.1080/15287390701597897 

195. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. 

196. Zock J-P, Jarvis D, Luczynska C, Sunyer J, Burney P, European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Housing characteristics, reported mold exposure, and asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110(2):285-292. https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(02)00092-1/pdf. 

197. Mendell MJ, Mirer AG, Cheung K, Tong M, Douwes J. Respiratory and allergic health effects of dampness, mold, and dampness-related agents: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(6):748-756. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002410 

198. Fisk WJ, Eliseeva EA, Mendell MJ. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: A meta-analysis. Environ Heal A Glob Access Sci Source. 2010;9(1):72. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-9-72 

199. Jones R, Recer GM, Hwang SA, Lin S. Association between indoor mold and asthma among children in Buffalo, New York. Indoor Air. 2011;21(2):156-164. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00692.x 

200. Jacobs DE, Kelly T, Sobolewski J. Linking public health, housing, and indoor environmental policy: Successes and challenges at local and federal agencies in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(6):976-982. doi:10.1289/ehp.8990 

201. Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Martinez D, Grellier J, et al. Chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water and congenital anomalies: Review and meta-analyses. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(10):1486-1493. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900677 

202. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Legionnaires Disease and Pontiac Fever | Legionella. US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 

203. Wargocki P, Wyon DP, Sundell J, Clausen G, Fanger PO. The effects of outdoor air supply rate in an office on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity. Indoor Air. 2000;10(4):222-236. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1034/j.1600-0668.2000.010004222.x. 

204. Daisey JM, Angell WJ, Apte MG. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: An analysis of existing information. Indoor Air. 2003;13(1):53-64. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0668.2003.00153.x 

205. Haverinen-Shaughnessy U, Moschandreas DJ, Shaughnessy RJ. Association between substandard classroom ventilation rates and students’ academic achievement. Indoor Air. 2011;21(2):121-131. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00686.x 

206. Chan WR, Parthasarathy S, Fisk WJ, Mckone TE. Estimated effect of ventilation and filtration on chronic health risks in U.S. offices, schools, and retail stores. Indoor Air. 2016;26(2):331-343. doi:10.1111/ina.12189 

207. Milton DK, Glencross PM, Walters MD. Risk of sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate, humidification, and occupant complaints. Indoor Air. 2000;10(4):212-221. https://buildequinox.com/files/iaq/milton_vent_sick_rates.pdf. 

208. Redlich CA, Sparer J, Cullen MR. Sick-building syndrome. Lancet (London, England). 1997;349(9057):1013-1016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9100639. 

209. Fisk WJ. Estimates of improved productivity and health from better indoor environments. Indoor Air. 1997;7(3):158-172. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.1997.t01-1-00002.x 

210. Fisk WJ. How IEQ affects health, productivity. ASHRAE. 2002;44(5). 

211. Sundell J, Levin H, Nazaroff WW, et al. Ventilation rates and health: Multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature. Indoor Air. 2011;21(3):191-204. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00703.x 

212. Carrer P, Wargocki P, Fanetti A, et al. What does the scientific literature tell us about the ventilation-health relationship in public and residential buildings? Build Environ. 2015;94(P1):273-286. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.08.011 

213. The American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ASHRAE Position Document on Infectious Aerosols. 2020. 

214. Federation of European Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Associations. How to operate and use building services in order to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) virus (SARS-CoV-2) in workplaces. 2020. 

215. Hanssen SO. HVAC - The importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate. Indoor Air, Suppl. 2004;14(SUPPL. 7):195-201. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00288.x 

216. Salthammer T. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Products and Materials in Indoor Environments. Handb Environ Chem. 2004;4:37-71. doi:10.1007/b94830 

217. Wallace LA, Pellizzari E, Leaderer B, Zelon H, Sheldon L. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products. Atmos Environ. 1987;21(2):385-393. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(87)90017-5 

218. Nurmatov UB, Tagiyeva N, Semple S, Devereux G, Sheikh A. Volatile organic compounds and risk of asthma and allergy: A systematic review. Eur Respir Rev. 2015;24(135):92-101. doi:10.1183/09059180.00000714 

219. Nielsen GD, Larsen ST, Wolkoff P. Re-evaluation of the WHO (2010) formaldehyde indoor air quality guideline for cancer risk assessment. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91(1):35-61. doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1733-8 

220. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Volatile Organic Compounds’ Impact on Indoor Air Quality. https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/volatile-organic-compounds-impact-indoor-air-quality. 

221. Stariolo DA. COVID-19 in Air Suspensions.; 2020. https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.05699.

222. Dietz L, Horve PF, Coil DA, Fretz M, Eisen JA, Van Den Wymelenberg K. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic: Built Environment Considerations To Reduce Transmission. Gilbert JA, ed. mSystems. 2020;5(2):e00245-20. doi:10.1128/mSystems.00245-20 

223. Fisk WJ, Spears M, Sullivan DP, Mendell M. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study.; 2009. https://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050670/. 

224. Sekine Y, Fukuda M, Takao Y, Ozano T, Sakuramoto H, Wang KW. Simultaneous removal of formaldehyde and benzene in indoor air with a combination of sorption- and decomposition-type air filters. Environ Technol. 2011;33(15-16):1983-1989. doi:10.1080/09593330.2011.562924 

225. Liu Y, Ning Z, Chen Y, et al. Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Nature. 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2271-3 

226. Yang Y, Zhang H, Nunayon SS, Chan V, Lai AC. Disinfection efficacy of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on airborne bacteria in ventilation ducts. Indoor Air. 2018;28(6):806-817. doi:10.1111/ina.12504 

227. World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva, Swizerland: WHO Press; 1996. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2011/dwq_guidelines/en/. 

228. Legionnaires Disease and Pontiac Fever | Legionella | CDC. US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 

229. Franklin BA, Brook R, Arden Pope C. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2015;40(5):207-238. doi:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2015.01.003 

230. Joshi S. The sick building syndrome. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2008;12(2):61. doi:10.4103/0019-5278.43262 

231. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/indoor-air-pollution-introduction-health-professionals. 

232. World Health Organization. WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon: A Public Health Perspective. Presented at the: 2009. https://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/env/9789241547673/en/. 

233. Yang S, Goyette Pernot J, Hager Jörin C, Niculita-Hirzel H, Perret V, Licina D. Radon Investigation in 650 Energy Efficient Dwellings in Western Switzerland: Impact of Energy Renovation and Building Characteristics. Atmosphere (Basel). 2019;10(12):777. doi:10.3390/atmos10120777 

234. Hadlich DE, Grimsrud DT. Radon in Institutional Buildings : The Impacts of Conservation Strategies. Radon Institutional Build Impacts. 1991;(1990). 

235. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Damp Indoor Spaces and Health - 5, Human Health Effects Associated with Damp Indoor Environments. Heal San Fr. 2004;(2):355. doi:10.17226/11011 

236. Mudarri D, Fisk WJ. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold. Indoor Air. 2007;17(3):226-235. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2007.00474.x 

237. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Moisture Control Guidance for Building Design, Construction and Maintenance. Washington, DC; 2013. 

238. Hänninen OO. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mold. Copenhagen; 2011. doi:10.3920/978-90-8686-722-6_10 

239. Sundhedsstyrelsen. Health Literacy: A Perscription to End Confusion. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2009. doi:10.17226/10883 

240. Nutbeam D. The evolving concept of health literacy. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(12):2072-2078. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.050 

241. Peerson A, Saunders M. Health literacy revisited: What do we mean and why does it matter? Health Promot Int. 2009;24(3):285-296. doi:10.1093/heapro/dap014 

242. Poureslami I, Nimmon L, Rootman I, Fitzgerald MJ. Priorities for Action: Recommendations from an international roundtable on health literacy and chronic disease management. Health Promot Int. 2017;32(4):743-754. doi:10.1093/heapro/daw003 

243. World Health Organization. Health literacy: The solid facts. 2013. 

244. National Institutes of Health. Improving Health Literacy Surgeon General’s Workshop on Improving Health Literacy. 2006. 

245. Vernon JA, Trujillo A, Rosenbaum S, Debuono B. Low Health Literacy: Implications for National Health Policy. 

246. Shah K, Kamrai D, Mekala H, Mann B, Desai K, Patel RS. Focus on Mental Health During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic: Applying Learnings from the Past Outbreaks. Cureus. 2020;12(3). doi:10.7759/cureus.7405 

247. Schaller A, Dejonghe L, Alayli-Goebbels A, Biallas B, Froboese I. Promoting physical activity and health literacy: Study protocol for a longitudinal, mixed methods evaluation of a cross-provider workplace-related intervention in Germany (The AtRisk study). BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):626. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3284-6 

248. Das S, Mia MN, Hanifi SMA, Hoque S, Bhuiya A. Health literacy in a community with low levels of education: findings from Chakaria, a rural area of Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):203. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4097-y 

249. Cho YI, Lee SYD, Arozullah AM, Crittenden KS. Effects of health literacy on health status and health service utilization amongst the elderly. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(8):1809-1816. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.003 

250. Sundhedsstyrelsen. Health Literacy: A Perscription to End Confusion. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2009. doi:10.17226/10883 

251. Nutbeam D. The evolving concept of health literacy. Off Provost. 2008. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.050 

252. Peerson A, Saunders M. Health literacy revisited: what do we mean and why does it matter? Health Promot Int. 2009;24(3):285-296. doi:10.1093/heapro/dap014 

253. World Health Organization. Health literacy: The solid facts. 2013. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/190655/e96854.pdf. 

254. National Institutes of Health. Improving Health Literacy Surgeon General’s Workshop on Improving Health Literacy. 2006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44257/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK44257.pdf. 

255. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard: An Assessment Tool for Employers to Prevent Heart Disease, Stroke, and Related Health Conditions. Atlanta; 2014. 

256. Schaller A, Dejonghe L, Alayli-Goebbels A, Biallas B, Froboese I. Promoting physical activity and health literacy: study protocol for a longitudinal, mixed methods evaluation of a cross-provider workplace-related intervention in Germany (The AtRisk study). BMC Public Health. 2016;16:626. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3284-6 

257. Das S, Mia MN, Hanifi SMA, Hoque S, Bhuiya A. Health literacy in a community with low levels of education: findings from Chakaria, a rural area of Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):203. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4097-y 

258. Cho YI, Lee S-YD, Arozullah AM, Crittenden KS. Effects of health literacy on health status and health service utilization amongst the elderly. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(8):1809-1816. doi:10.1016/J.SOCSCIMED.2008.01.003 

259. McKelvey W, Wong MR, Matis B. Letter Grading and Transparency Promote Restaurant Food Safety in New York City. J Env Heal. 2015;78(2):46-48. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502567. 

260. Wong MR, McKelvey W, Ito K, Schiff C, Jacobson JB, Kass D. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City. Am J Public Heal. 2015;105(3):e81-7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302404 

261. Simon PA, Leslie P, Run G, et al. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County. J Env Heal. 2005;67(7):32-36, 56; quiz 59-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15794461. 

262. Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020;395(10242):1973-1987. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9 

263. Kutter JS, Spronken MI, Fraaij PL, Fouchier RA, Herfst S. Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans. Curr Opin Virol. 2018;28:142-151. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2018.01.001 

264. Yang W, Elankumaran S, Marr LC. Relationship between Humidity and Influenza A Viability in Droplets and Implications for Influenza’s Seasonality. Park M-S, ed. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46789. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046789 

265. Microbiomes of the Built Environment: A Research Agenda for Indoor Microbiology, Human Health, and Buildings | The National Academies Press. National Academies of Sciences, engineering, and Medicine. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/23647/microbiomes-of-the-built-environment-a-research-agenda-for-indoor. Published 2017.

266. Dai D, Prussin AJ, Marr LC, Vikesland PJ, Edwards MA, Pruden A. Factors Shaping the Human Exposome in the Built Environment: Opportunities for Engineering Control. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51(14):7759-7774. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b01097 

267. van Beek J, de Graaf M, Al-Hello H, et al. Molecular surveillance of norovirus, 2005–16: an epidemiological analysis of data collected from the NoroNet network. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(5):545-553. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30059-8 

268. Valdez LD, MacRi PA, Braunstein LA. Intermittent social distancing strategy for epidemic control. Phys Rev E - Stat Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 2012;85(3). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.85.036108 

269. Chaudhuri S, Basu S, Kabi P, Unni VR, Saha A. Modeling the role of respiratory droplets in Covid-19 type pandemics. Phys Fluids. 2020;32(6):63309. doi:10.1063/5.0015984 

270. Verma S, Dhanak M, Frankenfield J. Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets. Phys Fluids. 2020;32(6):061708. doi:10.1063/5.0016018 

271. Ahmed F, Zviedrite N, Uzicanin A. Effectiveness of workplace social distancing measures in reducing influenza transmission: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1). doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5446-1 


Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Healthy Buildings, Biosecurity, AI, IoT, Public Health, Anti-Aging.